固安| 施秉| 涿州| 独山| 东台| 宁强| 行唐| 宜阳| 凤城| 西吉| 绛县| 舞阳| 北京| 会理| 泸县| 聂荣| 盈江| 太和| 乡城| 通化县| 静乐| 兴文| 塔城| 仁寿| 胶州| 乌尔禾| 曲松| 元氏| 惠水| 屏南| 顺义| 海安| 万山| 北川| 博湖| 博山| 富平| 景东| 浪卡子| 沙河| 顺德| 洛川| 宝坻| 东西湖| 奉化| 偃师| 北戴河| 邹平| 新建| 宁晋| 郁南| 林西| 郑州| 潞西| 无为| 本溪满族自治县| 丁青| 日土| 石渠| 西充| 双峰| 淇县| 前郭尔罗斯| 甘泉| 大新| 翼城| 钦州| 惠民| 安丘| 巫山| 明光| 商都| 南平| 茶陵| 六枝| 察哈尔右翼中旗| 胶南| 平远| 瑞丽| 通江| 桂林| 彭山| 汨罗| 南和| 清镇| 宁波| 津南| 华池| 莲花| 洪湖| 建水| 皋兰| 乌马河| 铁力| 嘉黎| 杭锦旗| 隰县| 鹤峰| 让胡路| 怀仁| 修文| 贵池| 神池| 阳谷| 肥西| 格尔木| 通州| 兴国| 苏尼特右旗| 黑河| 甘肃| 昭觉| 商洛| 龙泉| 惠山| 德保| 乌苏| 恩平| 务川| 喀喇沁左翼| 玛多| 镇雄| 金堂| 神木| 陈仓| 兰西| 牟定| 绥芬河| 织金| 赣州| 赤峰| 浙江| 八达岭| 惠东| 陈仓| 宣汉| 双流| 会泽| 镇康| 石门| 海南| 宾川| 莎车| 汾阳| 罗源| 乌审旗| 柳河| 宿松| 澄江| 冷水江| 周至| 从化| 九寨沟| 潜江| 日喀则| 周村| 安吉| 下花园| 成武| 新丰| 耒阳| 班戈| 寿光| 东山| 依兰| 龙岗| 方正| 台北县| 蒙城| 涿鹿| 涉县| 额敏| 萍乡| 宜君| 镇平| 高唐| 临沭| 南山| 宁波| 犍为| 平坝| 静宁| 泾县| 海盐| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 阿克塞| 乐清| 上海| 荣县| 本溪市| 西盟| 东川| 临淄| 友好| 峨山| 南溪| 塔河| 汤旺河| 北戴河| 乐昌| 鄯善| 荣成| 厦门| 西和| 武陟| 仙游| 蕲春| 墨江| 兰考| 岗巴| 文昌| 将乐| 准格尔旗| 沧州| 石棉| 会昌| 翼城| 久治| 通许| 本溪满族自治县| 沅江| 宜章| 福鼎| 固阳| 衡阳县| 疏勒| 全椒| 若羌| 南丰| 龙湾| 防城区| 肥城| 泗县| 霍山| 镇康| 岚县| 岳西| 湖北| 前郭尔罗斯| 进贤| 天镇| 珠海| 碾子山| 凤庆| 开平| 南郑| 索县| 盐池| 漳县| 河池| 濠江| 杭锦旗| 海原| 泾川| 高唐| 乌拉特前旗| 茶陵| 崇义| 嘉荫| 金平| 彰武| 龙泉驿| 平鲁|

2019-10-15 05:24 来源:39健康网

  

  Chinaisacceleratingitsplantocarryoutthe"BroadbandChina"strategytodevelopdigitaleconomy.[Photo/IC]Chinaisacceleratingitsplantocarryoutthe"BroadbandChina"iber,5GnetworksandquantumcommunicationnetworkswerereleasedbytheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission(NDRC).AccordingtotheNDRC,theopticalfiberprojectwith100MbpcapacitywillbepromotedtoChinavillages,andtheregionssmunicipalities,capitalcitiesandmajorcityclustersinPearlRiver,YangtzeRiverdeltaareas,jing-Tianjin-HebeiregionandtheYangtzeRivereconomiczone,,thebuildingofinformationinfrastructurewillboominruralareasofcentralandwesternregions,andfirst-tiercitieswillenterinto5Gandquantumera,WhatwasbehindthedecisionbySamsungtoacquireHarmanBothcompanies,HarmanandSamsung,(tothepartnership).Samsungbringscarelectronics,semiconductortechnology,sensors,displays,,ifyoucombinethesetwo,youhavethesbusinessThisnewrelationshipisextremelypowerfulforallourautomakers,,andHarmanisamarkuctsandsolutionswit,S,willHarmanexpandfasterhereWehaveamandatefromSamsungtocontinueo(TechnologiesCoLtd)(Inc),andwewilljointlydev"firewalls"betweenthe,,whilecompetingwithAppleinthesmartphonemarket,,beenaroundfor70yearsandk,elligenceT,,ouraugmentedrealitysolutionenablesdriverstoreceivetipsonnavigationorwarningsofroadconditionsaheadonadisplayscreen.(Wecombinethiswith)"contextual"navigationalprompts,,,thiscanbecombinedwithothertec,orher,,,,sowhatisyourmanagementstrategyConsumerswantdifferentproductsthatmeetthedemandsofvariousscenariosincars,,eneedsofcustomersatevery,,ShanghaiAutomotiveIndustryCorporation(SAIC),BYD,BMWBrilliance(BMWJV),,wecanofferautomakersarangeofsolutionst,,,,allourbesttechnologies,whetherdevelopedinChinaorelsewhere,,ourspouse,ourfamilyhastobeveryunderstandingbecauseourjob,ourresponsibility,,"Imgoingtobehomeeveryeveningat5pm,",andsometimesforweeks,"purpose",:60Nationality:UnitedStatesCareer:2017:PresidentandCEOofHarmanInternationalIndustriesIncBefore2008:PresidentofABBGroup,presidentforABBglobalautomationdivisionandboardmemberofBristol-MyersSquibbandRaytheonEducation:MastersdegreeinengineeringfromtheIndianInstituteofTechnology(IITRoorkee).

Thefamilyofa74-year-oldmanwhowasshotandkilledwhilegettinghistrashcanfromoutsidehisNashvillehomesharedthememoriesofthatfatefulday,,ahusbandandfatherwhohadretiredfromtheeducationbureauinChina,wasvisitinghissonsinceSeptemberwhenhewaskilledshortlybefore4pmonNov9alongClaiborneStreet."Thelocalpolicetoldmetheremightbefoursuspects,andtwosuspects-a15-year-oldgirlanda14-year-oldboy-werearrested,"saidWangYun,thevictim"AlthoughmyfathercouldnotspeakEnglish,hewasalwayssmiling,"saidWangYun."Idontunderstandwhysomeonewouldbesocrueltosuchaniceperson.""WhenIheardaboutshootingsinLasVegasandOrlando,Ifelttheyareveryfarawayfromme,butthatsnotthecase,",Zhailookedforherhusbandandranoutsidetofindhimnearsometreesacrossthestreet,about10metersfromhersonshome."Isawhimlyingthere,"Zhaisaid,usinghersonasatranslator."Hewasntbreathing.""MymotherandIcouldn,",andworkedasacomputerengineeratVanderbiltUniversityinNashville,Tennessee.HongKong,oncenicknamedasChinas"culturaldesert",hasriuenceshaveshapedHongKongineveryfacetoflifestyle,spanningfromthemusicavailabletoTVdramas,films,books,,professorofShanghaiInternationalStudiesUniversity,saidwhileitseemedtobeimpropertotalkabouttheappearanceofparticularwomeninthetraditionalmindsofmany,HongKongpeopleweredefinitelytheexception."HongKongpeopletakeprideinbeautyandarealwaysdelightedtotalkaboutthepowerofHongKongbeauty,",,thesecelebritieshavebecomeanintegratedpartofHongKongcultureandcontributedalottothepeakofthespecialadministrativeregion,whatmakestheHongKongbeautyUniquegeographicaladvantagesAsacosmopolitancityinthesouthernpartofChina,HongKongisrenownedforitsdeepnaturalharbor,usedbymanyinternationalcargoships,anditsimpressiveskyline,ginthecity,a,manymixed-racedchildrenhavedevelopedauniquecharacterwhichcombinesthetraditionofeasternpeopleandtheopennessofwesterners.

  AMMAN,Jordan-Elevenyear-oldSyrianrefugeeRaghdaHasriyehwhacksabad,shehasbeenplayingthesportforalmostayearthankstoaUScharity-andnowshedreamsoftakingonall-comers.","Raghdasaid."IhopethatIcantravelaroundthewholeworldandtakepartinArabchampionshipsandinternationalones."SincetheconflictinSyriabrokeoutin2011theUnitedNationsestimatesmorethan330,000childratteredhometownofHomsbeforegraduallymakingtheirwaytosafetyinthekingdom."GodaloneknowswhatwouldhavehappenedtomyfivechildrenandIifIhadnotdecidedtofleemycountry,"saidRaghda,squashhasprovedagodsendforthechildren."Idontunderstandanythi,",thecharitybehindtheprogram,insiststhatgettingtherefugeegirlsinvolvedinthesportcanbeinvaluableinhelpingthemdealwiththehardshipstheyface."Todaytheteamismadeupoffourgirlsandwearelookingtoexpanditto15,"saidfounderClaytonKeir."WetrainfivetimesaweekandtrainingincludesEnglishlessonsaimedathelpingthemcompeteintournamentsinJordanandabroad."CoachReemNiaz-herselfarefugeefr"releasethepotentialinsidethemselvesandletoffsteamdoingsomethingpositive,"shesaid.""Forthegirls,thereismoretotheirsquash-playingdreamthanjustwinningtournaments-theyhopeonedaytorepresentSyriaatthesport."Iwanttotakepartinchampionshipsacrosstheglobeandhelpraisemycountrysspirits,"012withhertwochildreninherarms."Therewasnothingleftthere,,"reigncountry-forherdaughter,squashisatleastprovidingachinkoflight."Sheisdoingsomethingthatweneverhadthechancetoaccomplishinourlives,"TheUniversityofInternationalBusinessandEconomicshostedit,WangJiaqiong,presidentoftheUIBE,said:"Thisyearstopic(TheOpening-UpintheNewEraYouthExchange)notonlyexpressestheconfidenceofpromotingeconomicglobalization,butalsoexpressesthehopethattheyouthwilltakeresponsibility."Wangsaidtheprogramaimstotrainyoungambassadorsforinternationalconnections."Ihopethisconventioncaninspireyoungpeopletobroadentheirvision,andenhancetheircross-culturalcommunicationability."ZhangBaijia,formerdeputydirectorofPartyHistoryResearchCenteroftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina,said:"Dialogueisanimportantwaytocommunicatewitheachother,unlikeargumentornegotiation,wherebothsidesseekcommonpointswhilereservingdifferences."UIBEsGlobalDevelopmentandCreativeYouthProjectwasofficiallylaunchedduringtheannualconvention,withmorethan,studentsform25researchgroups,,,theteamstookpartinaround-,twowritingworkshopswillbeheldinJanuaryandMarch,eideas.

  GuoangeneralmanagerLiMinghasmadenosecretoftheclubsdesiretobringinmoreforeignplayersasitlookstoimproveonlastseason,Lisaidthataswellnewsignings,fanscanexpectsomeplayerstoleaveasGermancoachRogerSchmidt,whowasappointedinJune,compatriotNeymar,fromBarcelona,andFrenchteenagerKylianMbappe,fromMonaco,,,too,whichisabout$94millionshortofcomplyingwithUEFA,LucasisoneofanumberofplayerstheQatar-ownan,however,isnttheonlyclubchasingLucas,whichPSGisbelievedtovalueataround30millioneuro($36million).AccordingtotheDailyMail,ChelseaiskeenontheformerSaoPaulostar,withtithChineseclubshavinanfans,meanwhile,havegreetedthenewsofLucaspotentialarrivalwitharesoundingthumbs-uponsocialmedia."Afteralltheseyears,Guoanisfinallygettingapowerfulforeignplayer-Iamsoexcited,"onesupporter,LiLuanjie,wroteonWeibo."ThereisnoplaceforLucasatPSG,thereforehisdecisiontocometoGuoanisdefinitelyawiseone,"saidanotherfan.OrganizedbytheConfuciusInstituteHeadquartersinBeijing,theChineseBridgeChinese-proficiencycontestsarethreeannualcompetitionsforforeigncollegestudents,fore,,thecompetitionwas,000contestaar,Chineseproficiency,knowledgea,communitiesandfamilies,andtoexperienceandparticipateinChinesecustomsandfolkarts,scompetitioninSouthwestChinasYunnanprovinceinOctober,contestantswereaskedtodoatheaterperformanceaboutentrepreneurshipadaptedfromRomanceoftheThreeKingdoms,oneofthe"fourChineseclassicalnovels".Somecontestantsalsodisplayedproficienciesincalligraphy,painting,acrobatics,kungfuandtraditionalinstruments.

AMMAN,Jordan-Elevenyear-oldSyrianrefugeeRaghdaHasriyehwhacksabad,shehasbeenplayingthesportforalmostayearthankstoaUScharity-andnowshedreamsoftakingonall-comers.","Raghdasaid."IhopethatIcantravelaroundthewholeworldandtakepartinArabchampionshipsandinternationalones."SincetheconflictinSyriabrokeoutin2011theUnitedNationsestimatesmorethan330,000childratteredhometownofHomsbeforegraduallymakingtheirwaytosafetyinthekingdom."GodaloneknowswhatwouldhavehappenedtomyfivechildrenandIifIhadnotdecidedtofleemycountry,"saidRaghda,squashhasprovedagodsendforthechildren."Idontunderstandanythi,",thecharitybehindtheprogram,insiststhatgettingtherefugeegirlsinvolvedinthesportcanbeinvaluableinhelpingthemdealwiththehardshipstheyface."Todaytheteamismadeupoffourgirlsandwearelookingtoexpanditto15,"saidfounderClaytonKeir."WetrainfivetimesaweekandtrainingincludesEnglishlessonsaimedathelpingthemcompeteintournamentsinJordanandabroad."CoachReemNiaz-herselfarefugeefr"releasethepotentialinsidethemselvesandletoffsteamdoingsomethingpositive,"shesaid.""Forthegirls,thereismoretotheirsquash-playingdreamthanjustwinningtournaments-theyhopeonedaytorepresentSyriaatthesport."Iwanttotakepartinchampionshipsacrosstheglobeandhelpraisemycountrysspirits,"012withhertwochildreninherarms."Therewasnothingleftthere,,"reigncountry-forherdaughter,squashisatleastprovidingachinkoflight."Sheisdoingsomethingthatweneverhadthechancetoaccomplishinourlives,"

  HouBo,bornin1924,isaChi,HoujoinedtheCommunistPartyofChinaattheageof14andlearnedphotographyduringtheWarofResistanceagainstJapaneseAggression(1931-45)inordertopresentabetterimageofthePartyedongbeforehediedin1976,schildrenusedtocallher"AuntHouBo".Between1949and1961,HoulivedandworkedinZhongnanhai,theheadquartersoftheCommunistPartyofChina,,shewastheonlywomanphotographerinMaosfilmcrew,,Houandherph,France,theUK,Germany,,acollectionof187photostakenthroughtheyears,wontheNationalBookAward.

  PARIS-BrigitteMacron,wifeofFrenchPresidentEmmanuelMacron,revealedthenameofthepandababy,thefirst-evercubborninthecountry,,BrigitteMacron,whoisalsothenewpandasgodmother,announcedthatthefour-month-oldcub,thebabypandahadbeencalledas"MiniYuanZi,"referringtohisfatherYuanZi,whoarrivedwithhisfemalepartnerHuanHuanincentralFrancesBeauvalzooinJanuary2012."YuanMengistheenergeticandvigorousfruitoftheFranco-Chinesefriendship,"saidMacron."YuanMengandhisparentsaretheillustrationofadialoguethathasalwaysbeenfruitfulbetweenourtwocountrieswho,forcenturies,havegotalongandunderstoodeachother,",,HuanHuangavebirthtotwincubs,,butabandonedthefirstafterthesecondcubwasborn,,femalepandasraiseonlyonecub,the"strongest",,ConservationofNature(IUCN).Chinaisacceleratingitsplantocarryoutthe"BroadbandChina"strategytodevelopdigitaleconomy.[Photo/IC]Chinaisacceleratingitsplantocarryoutthe"BroadbandChina"iber,5GnetworksandquantumcommunicationnetworkswerereleasedbytheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission(NDRC).AccordingtotheNDRC,theopticalfiberprojectwith100MbpcapacitywillbepromotedtoChinavillages,andtheregionssmunicipalities,capitalcitiesandmajorcityclustersinPearlRiver,YangtzeRiverdeltaareas,jing-Tianjin-HebeiregionandtheYangtzeRivereconomiczone,,thebuildingofinformationinfrastructurewillboominruralareasofcentralandwesternregions,andfirst-tiercitieswillenterinto5Gandquantumera,

  ActressLiuYifeiisphotographedbeforeattendingChristianDiorSpring/Summer2017fashionshowduringParisFashionWeek,March3,2017.[Photo/VCG]ChineseactressLiuYifeiissettostarasthetitularfemalewarriorinDisneyslive-actionadaptationoftheclassicChineseepic,,beatingnearly1,000hopefulsfortherole,dingrole,whichrequiresmasteryofmartialarts,abilitytospeakEng,whichhasbeencriticizedinthepastforcastingCaucasianactorsforAsianroles(Related:),focusedondiscoveringanethnicallyChineseyoungwomantoplayHuaMulan,whoimpersonatesherselfasamantotakeherailingfather,aprominentyoungstarinChinasentertainmentindustry,,havingspentsomeyearsofherchildhoodinQueens,NewYork,andagraduateofBeijingFilmAcademy,,includingTheForbiddenKingdom(2008)oppositeJackieChanandJetLiandOutcast(2014),,,,,voicedbyMing-NaWen,,earned$

  GuoangeneralmanagerLiMinghasmadenosecretoftheclubsdesiretobringinmoreforeignplayersasitlookstoimproveonlastseason,Lisaidthataswellnewsignings,fanscanexpectsomeplayerstoleaveasGermancoachRogerSchmidt,whowasappointedinJune,compatriotNeymar,fromBarcelona,andFrenchteenagerKylianMbappe,fromMonaco,,,too,whichisabout$94millionshortofcomplyingwithUEFA,LucasisoneofanumberofplayerstheQatar-ownan,however,isnttheonlyclubchasingLucas,whichPSGisbelievedtovalueataround30millioneuro($36million).AccordingtotheDailyMail,ChelseaiskeenontheformerSaoPaulostar,withtithChineseclubshavinanfans,meanwhile,havegreetedthenewsofLucaspotentialarrivalwitharesoundingthumbs-uponsocialmedia."Afteralltheseyears,Guoanisfinallygettingapowerfulforeignplayer-Iamsoexcited,"onesupporter,LiLuanjie,wroteonWeibo."ThereisnoplaceforLucasatPSG,thereforehisdecisiontocometoGuoanisdefinitelyawiseone,"saidanotherfan.TheannualVictoriasSecretFashionShowwilltakeplaceinShanghaiinNovemberthisyear,mark,ahandfulofveteranAngels,includingAdrianaLima,AlessandraAmbrosio,BehatiPrinsloo,CandiceSwanepoel,LilyAldridge,ElsaHosk,JasmineTookes,JosephineSkriver,LaisRibeiro,MarthaHunt,RomeeStrijd,SaraSampaioandStellaMaxwesshowforChinesemustbethesixChinesemodelsincludingHeSui,LiuWen,XiMengyao,JuXiaowen,XieXinandEstelleChen,aFrenchmodelofChinesedescent,whowillbeinvolvedinit,,ithasputforwardtheslogan,"NiHao,Shanghai",sayingthat,"Fromitsiconicskylinetoitsmajorfashioncred,Chinasvibrant,modernmetropolismakestheperfectbackdropfortheworldssexiestrunway."ThenewfashionshowvenuereflectsthebrandsaimtoappealtoChineseconsumersandthereareplanstoexpandinthenations"fast-growingmarket,"accordingtotheofficialVictoria"OscarAwardsinfashioncircles,"the2017VictoriasSecretFashionShow,whichwillconsistofaredcarpetfashionshow,modelbriefing,looksbehindthescenesandsuperstarperformances,,letstakeacloserlookatsomeiconicmomentsfromtheshowsstagemadebyChineseAngels.

  OpennessandinnovationwilldominatetheagendaofthisyearsFortuneGlobalForuminGuangzhouwhentopexecutivesoftheworldslargestcompaniesgatherinthesouthernChinesecity,underscoringChinasrisingroleasastrongadfrominternationalCEOsintheChinesemarketbutalsoamanifestationofthecountry,whichlastfromDec6to8,willcenteronthetheme"OpennessandInnovation:ShapingtheGlobalEconomy"andglobalbusinessleaderswillsharetheirviewswiththeirChinesecounterpartsontopicsincludingthelatesttrendsinthetechnologicalrevolution,theoutlookfortheworldseconomy,andhowmultinationalcompaniesshhereportdeliveredbyGeneralSecretaryXiJinpingatsontheprospectsoftheworldssecondlargesteconomy,theimplicationsofChinasrisingmiddleclass,rapidurbanizationandexpandingdigitaltechnologies,aswellashowthecountryeondevelopmentwithinternationalexperiencewillbenefitfutureglobaldevelopment."Theworldisnowfacedwithseveralcriticalissuesincludingthelackofaninnerdrivingforceforgrowthanddevelopmentandarisinganti-globalizationsentimentatthemoment,"saidXuHongcai,deputychiefeconomistattheChinaCenterforInternationalEconomicExchanges."ChinahascomeupwithsolutionssuchastheBeltandRoadInitiativethataimtocreateamoreopenandinclusiveinternationalcooperationplatformtofuelanewroundofdevelopment,",chiefcontentofficerofTimeIncandpresidentofFortunemagazine,saidthattheGuangzhouforumwillbeapowerfuldemonstrationoftheimportanceofglobalcommerceandtheprofoundchangethattechnologyisbringingtoglobalbusinessatatimewhenglobalizationisunderattack."Guangzhou,Chinassoutherngatewaytotheworld,,GuangzhouisbotharenownedsymbolandamodernmanifestationofChinasparticipationinglobalcommerce,",anothermajorthemeoftheGuangzhouforum,Chinahasbeentransformingfromacopycatintoaleaderintheareasofe-commerceandfinancialtechnology,thankstothecountrya,founderofChinase-commercegiantAlibabaGroupandPonyMa,chairmanofTencentHoldings,ersandsharetheirthoughtsonentrepreneurshipandwhatansformativetechnologiesonthehorizon,theimpactofChinaemergingasamajorinnovgiesincludingvirtualreality,artificialintelligence,autonomousvehicles,and3Dprinting,withaboutonethirdoftheworlds"unicorn"companies(startupsvaluedatmorethan$1billion)hailingfromthecountry,accordingtoglobalconsultingfirmMcKinseyCompany."TheChinesemarketplaceitselfisdemandingacapacitytoinnovatethatdidnotexistbefore,"saidJonathanWoetzel,,entrepreneurship,andaregulatoryenvironmentthathasbeenfuelinginnovationinChina.

  Thefamilyofa74-year-oldmanwhowasshotandkilledwhilegettinghistrashcanfromoutsidehisNashvillehomesharedthememoriesofthatfatefulday,,ahusbandandfatherwhohadretiredfromtheeducationbureauinChina,wasvisitinghissonsinceSeptemberwhenhewaskilledshortlybefore4pmonNov9alongClaiborneStreet."Thelocalpolicetoldmetheremightbefoursuspects,andtwosuspects-a15-year-oldgirlanda14-year-oldboy-werearrested,"saidWangYun,thevictim"AlthoughmyfathercouldnotspeakEnglish,hewasalwayssmiling,"saidWangYun."Idontunderstandwhysomeonewouldbesocrueltosuchaniceperson.""WhenIheardaboutshootingsinLasVegasandOrlando,Ifelttheyareveryfarawayfromme,butthatsnotthecase,",Zhailookedforherhusbandandranoutsidetofindhimnearsometreesacrossthestreet,about10metersfromhersonshome."Isawhimlyingthere,"Zhaisaid,usinghersonasatranslator."Hewasntbreathing.""MymotherandIcouldn,",andworkedasacomputerengineeratVanderbiltUniversityinNashville,Tennessee.

  WhatwasbehindthedecisionbySamsungtoacquireHarmanBothcompanies,HarmanandSamsung,(tothepartnership).Samsungbringscarelectronics,semiconductortechnology,sensors,displays,,ifyoucombinethesetwo,youhavethesbusinessThisnewrelationshipisextremelypowerfulforallourautomakers,,andHarmanisamarkuctsandsolutionswit,S,willHarmanexpandfasterhereWehaveamandatefromSamsungtocontinueo(TechnologiesCoLtd)(Inc),andwewilljointlydev"firewalls"betweenthe,,whilecompetingwithAppleinthesmartphonemarket,,beenaroundfor70yearsandk,elligenceT,,ouraugmentedrealitysolutionenablesdriverstoreceivetipsonnavigationorwarningsofroadconditionsaheadonadisplayscreen.(Wecombinethiswith)"contextual"navigationalprompts,,,thiscanbecombinedwithothertec,orher,,,,sowhatisyourmanagementstrategyConsumerswantdifferentproductsthatmeetthedemandsofvariousscenariosincars,,eneedsofcustomersatevery,,ShanghaiAutomotiveIndustryCorporation(SAIC),BYD,BMWBrilliance(BMWJV),,wecanofferautomakersarangeofsolutionst,,,,allourbesttechnologies,whetherdevelopedinChinaorelsewhere,,ourspouse,ourfamilyhastobeveryunderstandingbecauseourjob,ourresponsibility,,"Imgoingtobehomeeveryeveningat5pm,",andsometimesforweeks,"purpose",:60Nationality:UnitedStatesCareer:2017:PresidentandCEOofHarmanInternationalIndustriesIncBefore2008:PresidentofABBGroup,presidentforABBglobalautomationdivisionandboardmemberofBristol-MyersSquibbandRaytheonEducation:MastersdegreeinengineeringfromtheIndianInstituteofTechnology(IITRoorkee).BERLIN-BayernMunichovercameParisSaint-Germain3-1onthebracefro,theBundes,theBundesligarecordchampionsgrabbedafairytalestartasRobertLewandowskicapitalizedonacrossfromJamesRodriguezandaflickedonheaderfromKingsleyCedthefirstdangerouss,BayerngoalkeeperSvenUlreichwasonguardandtippedNeymarnJamesRodriguezpinpointcrossintotheboxmetCorentinTolisso,t,butthevisitorsshowedavitalsignaftertherestartasEdinsonCavaniscrossa"PSG"goalwouldtakethewindoutofBayernKingsleyComan"Bavarians"pressedfreneticallyforanothergoalwhereasParisSaint-Germainremaineddan,"PSG"completethegroupstageatopGroupBfollowedbyBayernMunich,CelticandRSCAnderlecht.","BayernheadcoachJuppHeynckessaid.

  

  

 
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谁偷走了莫高窟?藏经洞里究竟隐藏着什么秘密?

2019-10-15 20:13 | 法制晚报 | 手机看国搜 | 打印 | 收藏 |评论 | 扫描到手机
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核心提示:敦煌莫高窟是如何产生的,它为什么要屹立在凄清的荒漠里?藏经洞里究竟隐藏着什么秘密,以至于世人趋之若鹜?在近代落后的中国,敦煌莫高窟又经历了哪些坎坷与波折?

莫高窟藏经洞绘画

敦煌莫高窟以其举世无双的石窟艺术、藏经文物当之无愧地成为人类历史上最伟大、最辉煌的文化遗产之一。然而,在历史上,莫高窟可谓是命途多舛,屡逢浩劫。在沉寂而荒凉的沙漠中,莫高窟曾被遗忘了近千年。那么,敦煌莫高窟是如何产生的,它为什么要屹立在凄清的荒漠里?藏经洞里究竟隐藏着什么秘密,以至于世人趋之若鹜?在近代落后的中国,敦煌莫高窟又经历了哪些坎坷与波折?

莫高窟的建成与一个和尚有不解之缘

“敦,大地之意;煌,繁盛也。”敦煌,地处河西走廊,是千里荒漠中的一方繁盛的绿洲,自古以来就有“塞上江南”之称。敦煌自是自然界的一个奇迹,而更为重要的是它的经济地位与战略地位。这里前有阳关,后有玉门,被看作古代丝绸之路的咽喉。

千百年来,敦煌一直就是东西方贸易的中转站,而且也是宗教、文化和知识的交汇处,在历史舞台上扮演着极为重要的角色。

到了十六国时期,中原兵荒马乱,战争频仍,百姓流离失所,苦不堪言。在这种烽烟弥漫的年代,人们渴望找到一个局势相对稳定的地方,在那里和平宁静地生活,于是便将目光转向了河西。这之后,大批百姓和文化人士离开了故土中原,踏上了河西的土地,而随着他们一起到来的还有先进的文化和生产技术。

在这个时期,由汉魏传入的佛教也在敦煌空间兴盛起来。另外,敦煌也是佛教东传的通道和门户,称得上河西地区的佛教中心。因此,河西各地的佛门弟子多来此地研习。和尚乐尊为了求得佛祖真经,寻找极乐世界,就与敦煌结下了不解之缘。

和尚乐尊来到敦煌的时候是秦建元二年,即公元366年。这位乐尊和尚的佛教修养颇为深厚,带着三个徒弟往西行走。

一天黄昏的时候,乐尊和尚和他的三名弟子来到了三危山下。三危山,山名,特点是三座山峰高高耸立。乐尊和尚举头仰望,竟然看到了一幕神奇的景象,只见夕阳照耀下,三危山的三个峰顶发出灿烂的金光,仿佛显现出千万尊佛,瑰丽无比。乐尊和尚震惊不已,他本是一个虔诚的人,认定这里就是真佛所在。既然真佛在这里,那么无须再远行了,他赶紧对着三危山顶礼膜拜。他还认为仅仅膜拜是不够的,还需要建造佛窟。

从此以后,这位虔诚的乐尊和尚四处化缘,募集钱款,因为他已经下定决心,他要在这里建造一个佛窟。尽管很多人不理解,认为乐尊和尚不靠谱,办事一根筋,但是乐尊和尚没有顾忌别人的眼光,一直坚持了下来。乐尊和尚的坚持最终得到了回报,几年以后,第一个佛窟终于开凿成功了。乐尊和尚含笑闭上眼睛的时候,绝对不会想到他的举动引领了在敦煌开凿佛窟的风潮。

此后数千年,历经北魏、西魏、北周、隋、唐、五代、宋、西夏、元等十个朝代,敦煌佛窟的开凿从来没有间断过,尤以隋唐时期最为繁盛。数量众多而又分布密集的佛窟组成了佛窟群,似明珠般点缀在茫茫大漠中,成为古代文明的象征。在众多的佛窟中,莫高窟规模最大,最为恢宏,无疑是最耀眼的那一颗明珠。

为避战乱出逃之前藏经卷,一去再也没能回来

敦煌经卷是考古学上的重大发现,对人们研究历史、文化、佛教等诸多领域都产生了极其深远的影响。那么,人们不禁要问,如此浩瀚丰富的敦煌经卷为什么被封藏在藏经洞中,久久不见天日?这些经卷究竟是被谁封藏起来的?在这一问题上,专家们莫衷一是。不过大体说来,有这样两种说法:

一种是“废弃说”。持这种观点的人认为,敦煌各寺院把当时以为没有用途的书卷集中在一起,这样就形成了藏经洞,而我们现在所看到的敦煌经卷就源出于此。

实际上,赞成“废弃说”这一观点的人比较少,而大多数学者对“废弃说”嗤之以鼻,不屑一顾。那么既然不赞成“废弃说”,这些学者就敦煌经卷的来龙去脉问题又是如何看待的呢?对于藏经洞的开凿时期,他们又会得出什么样的结论呢?

学者认为,敦煌经卷是当时人们为躲避战乱而有目的地藏起来的,所谓废弃一说纯属子虚乌有、空穴来风。自汉代起,作为西陲重镇的敦煌,一直就是兵家相争之地。也就是因为这个原因,敦煌在战争中常常被波及,以至于莫高窟的管理者——也就是和尚——都要远走逃难。

宋景佑二年,也就是公元1035年,西夏兵乱,战火蔓延,敦煌再一次受到影响,莫高窟里的和尚也再一次远走避祸。由于祸事来得太过突然,和尚们来不及做出行的准备,于是就在匆忙之间,他们做出了一个影响后世的决定:只身出逃,留下经卷。

这些和尚当然不会把宝贵的经卷弃之不顾,因为他们非常珍爱这些经卷,他们懂得这些经卷的价值。和尚们想出了一个办法,他们把这些不便带走的经卷都封闭在一个洞窟的密室里,外面用泥壁封堵,并绘上壁画。除了经卷,他们把众多的文书、绣画、法器等物品也一同封闭在内,因为它们同样珍贵。

这些和尚打算等到战火熄灭的那一天,再返回到敦煌莫高窟中,然而他们一去就再也没能回来。至于这批和尚为什么没能够返回,原因已经不得而知。自从他们离开以后,这个盛放着五万余件宝物的密室便静静地安息着,如此一直过了七八百年。

直到清朝末年的一天,莫高窟的秘密才终于被揭开。初步揭开莫高窟的秘密的人是一名姓王的道士。这位王道士可谓是不速之客,他认为既然是他发现了藏经洞,那么藏经洞里的东西自然就归他所有。于是他为了创收,便私自将这些宝物兜售出去。

可能有很多人的心里存有这样一个疑问:敦煌经卷果然是在藏经洞中默默地躺了近千年吗?它们为什么没有腐烂呢?其实原因很简单,敦煌地区日照充足,干燥少雨,从年头到年尾都是如此,因而这些宝物得以完整地保存下来,成为中华民族最为宝贵的遗产。

清政府对宝贵的经卷态度漠然,认为那不过是一堆废纸

上文我们提到过,在清朝末年有一位王道士发现了莫高窟藏经洞,并将其据为私有,私自兜售,以赚取经济利益。由此可见,这位王道士“目不识珠”,而且利欲熏心,是一个不折不扣的伪道士,修行明显不够。多年以后,他竟然把藏匿起来的写本卖给了外国人,其中就包括斯坦因。对于斯坦因,我们并不陌生,他是英国有名的考古学家,而他的另一个头衔则是窃取藏经洞文物第一人。

曾经有人建议清政府把藏经洞里的这批文物运送到省城保存,然而昏庸的清政府竟然认为这样做一点也没有必要,因为那会花掉高昂的路费,而藏经洞里的那些经卷在他们看来就是一堆废纸。

然而,尽管清政府对宝贵的经卷态度漠然,认为那不过是一堆废纸;尽管莫高窟地处荒凉的大漠,交通闭塞落后,但是发现藏经洞的消息还是不胫而走,最后传到了外国探险家们的耳朵里。这些外国的探险家们敏锐地意识到,莫高窟其实是一处不为人知的宝藏。从那以后,一只只罪恶的黑手无耻地伸向了这块佛门净地。

西方人对敦煌和莫高窟的认识,始于匈牙利人洛克齐。第一个到达莫高窟的西方人正是此人,这位仁兄见到莫高窟内的精美壁画和塑像以后,完全被征服了。返回国内,他四处宣扬莫高窟的迷人之处,引得西方学者蠢蠢欲动,开始了他们的莫高窟之旅。

在众多窃取藏经洞文物的西方人中最过分的有两个,他们分别是英国考古学家斯坦因和法国考古学家伯希和。

斯坦因,这个名副其实的敦煌艺术宝藏的第一盗匪,先后两次来到莫高窟骗取文物。他第一次来莫高窟的时候是1907年。他沿着罗布泊南的古丝绸之路,来到了莫高窟。他只用了200两白银,便换取了24箱写本和5箱其他艺术品。

1914年,贪婪的斯坦因第二次造访莫高窟,又以500两白银向王道士购得了570段敦煌文献。贪婪的斯坦因遇到了贪婪的王道士,于是为了满足贪婪的欲望而做起了买卖。斯坦因疯买,王道士疯卖。我们有理由相信,买卖成交以后,斯坦因和王道士都是快乐的,因为他们的利益诉求都得到了极大程度上的满足。

据统计,斯坦因两次从莫高窟掠夺的文物,包括150多卷丝织品,500余幅绘画,6500多卷各种写本、印本、图书以及经卷。斯坦因不愧为窃取藏经洞文物第一人,他完美地展现了一个窃贼和掠夺者所能具备的全部品质。

法国考古学家伯希和是另一个罪恶的掠夺者,他凭借窃贼的天赋和才华,在1908年掠夺了大批文物,其“成就”足以和斯坦因并驾齐驱,享誉窃贼领域。他得知在莫高窟发现了古代写本以后,立即从迪化赶到敦煌。他在洞中拣选了三个星期,最终以600两白银为代价,获取了一万多件最为精华的敦煌文书,满载而归。

百年前的一幕幕,至今回想起来仍令中华儿女心颤。一个巨大的中华文明宝库,竟被一个假道士据为己有,进而被分割得体无完肤,写下了令中华民族世代垂泪的一笔。《考古发现全档案》

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